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United States 1848


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Though I'd like to get both done in due time, my next project after United States 1860 will either be Mexico 2000 (see it's thread) or this one. I wanted a scenario available out there in the old pre-Republican two-party system of Democrats and Whigs, and this was, in my opinion, the most interesting of the elections featuring the Whig Party. It was the first election to have the expansion of slavery into the territories and the rights of new states to choose to be Free or Slave as a major issue. It's results, if different, could have had ramifications on how the 1860 election and it's consequences played out, not only by which party won, but by which candidate within each party won the nomination, as both parties had strong pro- and anti-slavery camps. The only party in the election that wholly opposed slavery was the Free Soil Party, a Third Party that was, six years later, adopted whole into the newly-formed Republican Party. The nomination for both parties was wide open, like in 2008, as the incumbant Democratic President, James K. Polk, stated he'd done all he sought to do in one term (notably fight and win the Mexican-American War, gaining a huge swath of territory from Mexico for the United States) and, also due to bad health (he actually died four months after leaving office), he wasn't seeking reelection. The candidates are:

DEMOCRATIC PRESIDENTIAL CANDIDATES

-Former Senator Lewis Cass of Michigan

-Secretary of State James Buchanan of Pennsylvania

-Assosciate Justice of the Supreme Court Levi Woodbury of New Hampshire

-Senator John C. Calhoun of South Carolina

-General William J. Worth of New York

-Vice President George M. Dallas of Pennsylvania

-Former Representative William O. Butler of Kentucky

DEMOCRATIC VICE-PRESIDENTIAL CANDIDATES

-William O. Butler

-John A. Quitman

-William R. King

-John Y. Mason

-James I. McKay

-Jefferson Davis

WHIG PRESIDENTIAL CANDIDATES

-General Zachary Taylor of Louisiana

-Senator Henry Clay of Kentucky

-Senator John M. Clayton of Delware

-Assosciate Justice of the Supreme Court John McLean of Ohio

-General Winfield Scott of New Jersey

-Senator Daniel Webster of Massachussetts

WHIG VICE-PRESIDENTIAL CANDIDATES

-Millard Filmore

-Abbott Lawrence

-Andrew Stewart

-Thomas M.T. McKennan

FREE SOIL PRESIDENTIAL CANDIDATES

-Former President Martin Van Buren of New York

-Senator John P. Hale of New Hampshire

-Representative Joshua R. Giddings of Ohio

FREE SOIL VICE-PRESIDENTIAL CANDIDATE

-Charles Francis Adams, Sr.

NATIONAL LIBERTY PRESIDENTIAL CANDIDATE

-Gerritt Smith of New York

NATIONAL LIBERTY VICE-PRESIDENTIAL CANDIDATE

-Charles C. Foote

I'm still working out issues, so if anyone has any insight, please let me know.

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Charles Francis Adams, Sr. was also a presidential candidate for the Free Soil Party - he got 13 delegates at the convention.

Could we include Salmon P. Chase for the Free Soil party, defaulted to off?

I know that Adams, Sr. was a presidential candidate for the Free Soil Party as well, but that becomes problematic in game terms, as he's the only Veep candidate, and thus if he wins the presidential nomination, there would be no Veep, unless you can think of another possible Veep candidate.

As for Chase, he could certainly be included as an 'off by default' Free Soil candidate, maybe even also as the second potential Veep candidate I mentioned above as well.

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Considering issues, I've come up with so far:

-California/New Mexico Statehood

-European Relations

-Expansion of Slavery

-Mexico

-National Bank

-Nicaragua Canal Proposal

-Presidential vs. Congressional Power

-States' Rights

-Tarriffs

-Territorial Administration

Any ideas as to other?

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Considering issues, I've come up with so far:

-California/New Mexico Statehood

-European Relations

-Expansion of Slavery

-Mexico

-National Bank

-Nicaragua Canal Proposal

-Presidential vs. Congressional Power

-States' Rights

-Tarriffs

-Territorial Administration

Any ideas as to other?

Most issues should probably be similar to 1860.

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I know that Adams, Sr. was a presidential candidate for the Free Soil Party as well, but that becomes problematic in game terms, as he's the only Veep candidate, and thus if he wins the presidential nomination, there would be no Veep, unless you can think of another possible Veep candidate.

As for Chase, he could certainly be included as an 'off by default' Free Soil candidate, maybe even also as the second potential Veep candidate I mentioned above as well.

That sounds like a good idea, making Adams another presidential candidate and Chase the VP candidate.

The Whig party deliberately avoided having a strong platform because Taylor was a slaveowner and not strong on Whig ideas; they also wanted to avoid a division in their party over slavery. On most issues, Taylor should be in the center, to account for this.

Also, South Carolina chose its electors by state legislature earlier than election day (they picked Democratic electors), and Massachusetts had the legislature choose the electors if no candidate won a majority (which actually happened in 1848, with the state legislature supporting the Whigs). Is it possible to simulate these events?

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In both the 1848 and 1860 election, I simulate the South Carolina legislature choosing the electors by having 170 eligible voters on it's region stats (the number of legislators between the State House and Senate) and having the Democrats (in 1848) and Southern Democrats (in 1860), who in both cases were almost unamimous in said legislature, have 100% in SC in the GE and all other parties off the ballot there. As for Massachussetts in 1848, I'm not sure how to do that, as there's no guarantee a given party won't be able to get a majority in a given game, and thus I don't want to create some situation which may not apply. Any suggestions?

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I'm close to being done the parties now (most of the stuff previous was just edited and adjusted from what I have already in 1860), and am now looking to endorsers. I recall reading somewhere that the Freemasons were openly endorsing Presidential candidates as late as 1848, so I'll add them as a general national endorser with significant momentum and footsoldier bonuses, favouring no party, being centre-right in stance, and having a low PIP effect. Does anyone know the main papers of 1848 and which party each may lean toward. The governors and Congressional leaders and their parties are easy enough to find. The DNC would be an endorser for the first time in this election, as the very first DNC was elected by the 1848 Democratic National Convention. Former Presidents would be John Tyler (who'd lean Whig) and James K. Polk (who'd lean Dem), as Van Buren's a Free Soil candidate. Any other ideas, or help with the papers?

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Here's the delegate numbers for 1848:

DEMOCRATS

AL: 9

AR: 3

CT: 6

DE: 3

FL: 3

GA: 10

IL: 9

IN: 12

IA: 4

KY: 12

LA: 6

ME: 9

MD: 8

MA: 12

MI: 5

MS: 6

MO: 7

NH: 6

NJ: 7

NY: 36

NC: 11

OH: 23

PA: 26

RI: 4

SC: 9

TN: 13

TX: 4

VT: 6

VA: 17

WI: 4

WHIGS:

AL: 7

AR: 3

CT: 6

DE: 3

FL: 3

GA: 10

IL: 8

IN: 12

IA: 4

KY: 12

LA: 6

ME: 9

MD: 8

MA: 12

MI: 5

MS: 6

MO: 7

NH: 6

NJ: 7

NY: 36

NC: 11

OH: 23

PA: 26

RI: 4

SC: 2

TN: 13

TX: 4

VT: 6

VA: 17

WI: 4

I don't have info for the Free Soilers, but I'd imagine it would be similar.

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So, I must ask again, does anyone know of prominent newspapers for promoters in the various regions of the country for 1848 (and even 1860, for that matter) and what state they are based in, as well as which party they'd lean toward in 1848 and in 1860?

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So, I must ask again, does anyone know of prominent newspapers for promoters in the various regions of the country for 1848 (and even 1860, for that matter) and what state they are based in, as well as which party they'd lean toward in 1848 and in 1860?

I found a few. Not much but it's a start.

The Daily True Democrat was a Free Soil newspaper from Cleveland, Ohio, suggesting that Salmon P. Chase and/or Joshua Reed Giddings (who should probably also be added to 1848) run for president.

The Evansville Daily Journal was a newspaper from Indiana that supported the Whig Taylor/Fillmore ticket.

The Hartford Courant was around in Connecticut, and endorsed the Whigs, Taylor/Fillmore.

I'll find more later on.

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I found a few. Not much but it's a start.

The Daily True Democrat was a Free Soil newspaper from Cleveland, Ohio, suggesting that Salmon P. Chase and/or Joshua Reed Giddings (who should probably also be added to 1848) run for president.

The Evansville Daily Journal was a newspaper from Indiana that supported the Whig Taylor/Fillmore ticket.

The Hartford Courant was around in Connecticut, and endorsed the Whigs, Taylor/Fillmore.

I'll find more later on.

This is great, Darkmoon! I look forward to if you can find more. And I do already have Giddings as a candidate, though currently Chase is just a Veep. I could make him an 'off-by-default' candidate as well, though.

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  • 2 weeks later...

Darkmoon, have you dug up any more paper endorsers for 1848 (or 1860, for that matter)? And, for that matter, do you know whom Harper's Weekly and the New York Associated Press, New York Tribune, New York Times, and Philadelphia Bulletin backed or at least leaned toward in each election?

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Darkmoon, have you dug up any more paper endorsers for 1848 (or 1860, for that matter)? And, for that matter, do you know whom Harper's Weekly and the New York Associated Press, New York Tribune, New York Times, and Philadelphia Bulletin backed or at least leaned toward in each election?

I found some more. I noticed that there are few archives going back that far, so the best thing for me is to type "newspaper endorsements 1848" into Google. If I can't immediately find a paper, I type the same thing plus "Taylor-Fillmore", "Cass-Butler" or "Van Buren-Adams".

I can also use my college's online libraries to find these endorsements. I'm on my final semester and have a lot of papers to write, but I will at least browse their archives while I still can.

The Cleveland Herald out of Ohio endorsed the Taylor-Fillmore ticket in October.

The Florida Herald & Southern Democrat, a Democratic paper, supported Van Buren in 1840. I don't know who they supported in 1848, but it was probably Lewis Cass, although maybe they could lean towards Van Buren given their previous endorsement of him. This paper ceased to exist in 1849, so I don't think you can use them for 1860.

Abraham Lincoln went on a speaking tour for Taylor-Fillmore; he should be added as a Crusader.

If the "New York Associated Press" is the same as the "Associated Press" created in New York in 1846, then they don't make endorsements; the AP is just a news cooperative and has never made an official endorsement.

The New York Times only began to exist in 1851, and therefore could not have endorsed anyone in 1848.

I'll look in my college's archives next, and see what else I can find.

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Just found another newspaper.

The Floridian (not the same as the Florida Herald) endorsed the Cass-Butler Democratic ticket in 1848 as early as July.

I think the papers which endorsed earlier should be leaning more strongly at the beginning than papers that endorsed later.

Also, the nomination of Lewis Cass and the adoption of popular sovereignty in the platform caused William Lowndes Yancey, a prominent pro-slavery Southern Democrat, to walk out of the Democratic convention. This should be an event. Yancey was the main person behind the 1860 split of the Democratic Party into Northern and Southern factions; he should be a Crusader for the Southern Democrats in 1860 if he isn't one already.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Lowndes_Yancey

That's all for now, I just wanted to throw that in there.

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Okay, I think I'm pretty much done the endorsers for this one. I've got the state governors, three Whig-leaning papers, three Democratic-leaning papers, and one Free Soil-leaning paper, the the House Speaker (Whig) and Senate President Pro Tempore (Dem), and two ex-Presidents, John Tyler (Whig) and James K. Polk (Dem), and the Freemasons, who could be swayed either way (or maybe even Free Soil). Now for events. Other than Yancey's storming out, any suggestions?

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I have some more information on newspaper endorsements.

Horace Greeley's New York Tribune remained a Whig paper in 1848, even though Greeley himself agreed with much of the Free Soil platform and flirted with the idea of endorsing Van Buren. This paper should lean strongly towards the Whigs, and slightly towards the Free Soil party.

However, Greeley strongly supported Henry Clay, and gave mild support to the eventual Taylor-Fillmore ticket in November, just before the election (he hated the fact that Taylor wasn't committed to the Whigs). The New York Tribune should endorse Henry Clay in the primaries, and lean towards Taylor in the general election.

The Brooklyn Freeman was a Free Soil paper in New York that Walt Whitman founded in 1848. It endorsed the Van Buren-Adams ticket in September. A fire destroyed Whitman's office the day after the first paper was published, so this endorsement shouldn't have a lot of momentum.

The Barnburner was the official paper of the Free Soil party in Missouri.

The Free Soil Banner was an Ohio newspaper which supported the Free Soil party.

The Washington Union was a DC newspaper which supported the Democrats. Since DC didn't cast electoral votes, you could always assign this paper to Maryland or Virginia or simply make it a national endorsement.

I will keep looking for more - keep me posted as to what specific information you need.

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