1. The majority should have its way when it is consensus, so the founders had set up the Senate so all states had equal representation in one house and unequal representation in the House of Representatives because the nations ideals are close to being fairly represented. Thus, the filibuster is incredibly important, because anything the majority wants to pass in the house can move out of the house with a vote, it has to go to the senate where 60% of the senators must agree currently unless more states are added. In actuality the United States should not even have Political Parties as that was the intention from the beginning but human nature is to be a part of a group of like minded people certainly in this day and age.
2.This goes to being apart of political parties progress for democrats is universal healthcare, in my opinion that is really not progress other than causing more debt. Progress is in the eye of the beholder and remember the Minority could be silenced in the Senate if the Majority was supported by a 60 seat plus majority caucus which would mean that they have over whelming support of the general public.
3. I do not think that the filibuster can be abused, the Senate is for equal representation remember so each state has directly elected member of the senate to vote on and carry forward the interests of those states. We are United States that form the government not the government of the united states forming the nation. We are a conglomerate of states that while they may disagree they still have common causes that they want to work toward.
4. Foreign Affairs is dictated by the head of State so the president, the most that they can do is change laws regarding use of force actions and the ability for a president to deploy troops. I do not see them really having much of any sway in that sphere other than talking about it on cable news shows or on social media. Ultimately as long as the president informs the gang of 8 its within his or her purview.
5. Well unlike the Parliamentary system you have to comprise. You have to give some to get some unless you have an overwhelming majority. The Green New Deal, while I hate everything within it, I love the idea of it, but currently both sides most definitely want all or nothing, I do not see there ever being a third major party in the US because it would doom which ever party is closest to them. I think both parties need new majority leaders especially ones that focus on compromise because then everything would go better, but I am sure I'm preaching to the choir.
6. While sure a voter in Wyoming has 10X more power in the Senate than the house though. In fact I think the system works great, the most important power which is that of the purse is in the hands of the House, where states have power based on population which helps them get the funding they deserve because it should be proportional to their population. I don't think that it is a problem with population having to much power as each side hating each other and unwilling to compromise, it has never been an issue until the democrat's started changing from their old version of the party to the new version of the party. I don't see a Democrat ever winning a seat in South Dakota for example until demographics or population changes drastically.
7. The powers have stood the test of time for 234 years, with some changes along the way. Direct elections of Senators and things like the VRA, which is all good progress. There is a reason we have only once had a civil war and that i s the fact that the system works good whether you are in the Majority of the Minority. Democracy is messy and it will always be messy the thing that needs to remain true is how this country operates and the norms. The filibuster is not racist it has nothing to with race, sure southern Democrats used it to stop the VRA from passing but that was 50 years ago. Both sides need to tone it down but mostly the democrats, for the simple fact that not everyone you disagree is racist, or homophobic, or any other word they use to describe the other party.
Your reforms are interesting, but there are just three that I think are really worth looking at, the first is term limits of course that is absolutely needed, but not in the judiciary because I worry that the judiciary would become even more partisan when it should be less partisan. Instead of abolishing the electoral college, because that is just wrong in my opinion because our head of state is chosen by the states not congress, we should instead adopt Maine or Nebraska plan but also change then how districts are drawn. My opinion personally would be to have a commission, with equal number of major party's on the commission, I am working under the assumption that most states are like Minnesota with a distinction between parties whether they are major or minor party's. The commission which is headed by the chief justice of the state supreme court then equal number of representatives from the major parties. I think that would make it fair maybe change the VRA to include that, I know the court struct down the oversight of the southern states but I think that is a compromise that would work. Because if you change how you reapportion the electors from each state then you have a much more fair election, because people are more represented in their votes which is what you want to achieve. Now of course that is my dream scenario because it is a decent compromise in my opinion. The popular vote matters more than it does now, but still retaining states right to choose the head of state.
My final point, the minority does not run the country, the majority does in house especially, but the senate is a special case, because the founders had two houses to create more compromise especially that house. The minority can stop legislation but then its on the majority to make it better, again we are not a parliamentary country, we are unique and that is what has caused us to be a shining country that all the world wants to come to. Sadly I see a lot of problems that are not going to fix themselves unless people who want real change are willing to stand up.