If I can bring some precisions
=> Lucien Bonaparte won't be Senator before the last parliament under the Convention where he sat to help his brother Napoléon and his coup
Let's cut political times of the revolutions too:
1789-1792: Moderate time
Essentially betwenn 1789 and 1791, all MPs are in favor of a moderate monarchy, only one is for a Republic, Marat
1791 (June => Varennes scandal) 1792: Returnment
Two essential things have returned the public opinion:
1: The King and his family tried to leave France for Luxemburg where supporters were gathered
However it failes some miles before at Varennes and he returned to Paris, MPs tried to say he has been kidnapped but at this moment, people was shocled and he was done
2: The dubble game of the King who declared war to Prussia but used his veto against every law of the assembly to help Prussia to win the war and walk on Paris
Hence in August, the monarchy falled down
Second period: 1792-1794: The Socialist excess
Such excess that for many historians the USSR found its inspiration not only in Marx and the French Commune but also the French Constitution of 1793
at this period the Left takes power with only Republicans due to the system of vote, the assembly surrenders in the same time than the King and dissolves the parliament
From 1792 to mid 1793: The Soft Republicans try to keep the situation calm
These soft Republicans called "Girondins" want to save the head of the King even if the King has to renounce to the crown
They finish backstabbed by the "new Left", the Montagnards who can by this sacrifice move the Republic Left.
At this same period almost half of Europe is in war so the Republican dictatorship is instored by Robespierre and Saint Just to protect the country.
One of the first totalitarian regimes
Sooner than later this moment Danton who has followed Robespierre on the necessity of the Dictatorship of War disagrees to maintain it after 1794 and in the same time the "Hebertists" who are the former form of modern communism are raising in violent minority groups in Paris.
Robespierre kills these Hebertists with the support of Danton then in the end of march 1794 condemns Danton to death because he disagrees with the terror regime.
(The assembly was almost reduced to Social Totalitarians (Robespierre) in the center vs Hard Socialists (Danton) in the right of the parliament and hard Communists in the Left (Hebert)
The terrible law of the 22nd Prerial is voted:
=> From now and between June and the 22nd July thousands of peoples are executed without any reason.
Then the 9 Thermidor 1794 (mid of the year) Robespierre falls in an epic returnment
He calls traitors in the assembly and everybody among the MPs who are fearing for themselves prefer to kill him.
That's why he's arrested, but the Parisians make him free, he takes refugee in the Townhall of Paris:
The townhall of Paris is assaulted by the general BARRAS
The day after the Robespierrists fall all.
Last period: 1794-1799: The Directory attempt
Chocked by the previous period and considering that all big revolutionnaries (Marat, Danton, Robespierre, Camille Desmoulins, Saint Just) are dead, those who stay create a liberal regime inspired on the American revolution
2 assemblies, a Senate formed by older citizens and a chamber of 500 MPs made by younger
It's from this period that we kept the bicameral system, inspired by the shock of having an assembly totalitarian regime in 1793 and 1794
The question of having a president is questionned
But they fear that a Bourbon be elected President ahead to become King, so they form 5 directors who are head of the government and appoint ministers
Finally they give 1/3 assemblies election change per year
And the defeats come to this regime
1795 and 1796 Gracchus Baboeuf and the Jacobins (partisans of the idea of the Left constitution of 1793) try to take back the power in Paris but the regime survives
1797 Monarchists win, a coup is instaured by the regime itself to void their electoral victory and deport them.
1798 the Jacobins win thanks to the help of the Monarchists and the regime void the election and says that the next year will elect a 2/3 chamber majority
1799 the Jacobins win the majority of both houses and prepare a change of regime
Sieyés who was ambassador in Prussia is back, he prepares the change of regime because the French Constitution of 1794 is too difficult to be easily changed.
He will play with the Jacobins and prepare the famous 18 brumaire coup of Napoléon to become Consul of the Republic with himself (Sieyés) in second Consult and Rogers Ducos in 3rd
Sieyés thought that Napoléon would be easy to control, he said himself: "I need a sword", well, he underestimated Napoléon
This has been a famous and strong period where ideas have been quickly revolutionned
For example: France is the first country in the world to have decriminalized homosexuality (1791, under the Constitutionnal Monarchy!) the laws to limit it only came under the Vichy period and Petain.
Same for social rights, the project of 1793 was to create a constitutionnal right to Social rights from the State, to Social Welfare and that 150 years before the Social Security.
There were high projects of direct democracy which have been lost such as local assemblies from the people in the same Constitution of 1793 which could hloc every law from the parliament if there were 50%+1 of opposition in a certain number of people's district
The Constitution of 1793 has been the first to be adopted by popular referendum in the history
The Constitution of 1793 instaured the "Soil rights" which means that if you born on the territory you can become citizen and if you live for 1 year in the country you can become citizen
And surely...the Robespierrist regime inspired Staline or Hitler in some ways as Mussolini because this period was well a period where the State was strong and enroled people to "learn" what the good revolution is.
This has been 10 years where almost everybody could change the history of this major country, and that's why it has gave a major influence in the continental europe and almost led to the formation of Italy and Germany and the revolutions of 1848 because this revolution reinvented the idea of what a nation is contrary to the American revolution which (and I totally support it for my own) built its success on the common reject of the Great Britain and not a special idea of common nation.
For those who want a quicker résumé 😛: